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Includes philosophy, homeowner association history, and voting information.

philosophy 哲学

Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, justice, validity, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing these questions (such as mysticism or mythology) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on reasoned argument. The word philosophy is of Ancient Greek origin: f???s?f?a (philosophia), meaning "love of wisdom." To give an exhaustive list of the main branches of philosophy is difficult, because there have been different, equally acceptable divisions at different times, and the divisions are often relative to the concerns of a particular period. However, the following branches are usually accepted as the main ones. Metaphysics investigates the nature of being and the world. Traditional branches are cosmology and ontology. Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, and whether knowledge is possible. Among its central concerns has been the challenge posed by skepticism and the relationships between truth, belief and justification. Ethics, or 'moral philosophy', is concerned with questions of how persons ought to act or if such questions are answerable. The main branches of ethics are meta-ethics (sometimes called "analytic ethics"), normative ethics and applied ethics. Metaethics concerns the nature of ethical thought, comparison of various ethical systems, whether there are absolute ethical truths, and how such truths could be known. Ethics is also associated with the idea of morality. Plato's early dialogues include a search for definitions of virtue. Political Philosophy is the study of government and the relationship of individuals and communities to the state. It includes questions about law, property, and the rights and obligations of the citizen. Aesthetics deals with beauty, art, enjoyment, sensory-emotional values, perception, and matters of taste and sentiment. Logic deals with patterns of thinking that lead from true premises to true conclusions. Beginning in the late 19th century, mathematicians such as Frege began a mathematical treatment of logic, and today the subject of logic has two broad divisions: mathematical logic (formal symbolic logic) and what is now called philosophical logic. Philosophy of Mind deals with the nature of the mind and its relationship to the body, and is typified by disputes between dualism and materialism. In recent years there is an increasing connection between this branch of philosophy and cognitive science. Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. Most academic subjects have a philosophy, for example the philosophy of science, the philosophy of mathematics, and the philosophy of history. In addition, a range of academic subjects have emerged to deal with areas which would have historically been the subject of philosophy. These include Psychology, Anthropology and Science. The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras (see Diogenes Laertius: "De vita et moribus philosophorum", I, 12; Cicero: "Tusculanae disputationes", V, 8-9). The ascription is based on a passage in a lost work of Herakleides Pontikos, a disciple of Aristotle. It is considered to be part of the widespread legends of Pythagoras of this time. "Philosopher" replaced the word "sophist" (from sophoi), which was used to describe "wise men," teachers of rhetoric, who were important in Athenian democracy. The history of philosophy is customarily divided into three periods: Ancient philosophy, Medieval philosophy, and Modern philosophy. For a map with the dates and places of birth of most western philosophers see here. Ancient philosophy is the philosophy of the Graeco-Roman world from the sixth century [circa 585] B.C. to the fourth century A.D. It is usually divided into four periods: the pre-Socratic period, the periods of Plato and Aristotle, and the post-Aristotelian (or Hellenistic) period. Sometimes a fifth period is added that includes the Christian and Neo-Platonist philosophers. The most important of the ancient philosophers (in terms of subsequent influence) are Plato and Aristotle.

哲学は、問題(例えば存在、知識、真実、美しさ、正義、有効性、心と言語)に関する一般的な問題の研究です。哲学は、その重要な、一般に組織的アプローチと論じられた議論に対するその依存によってこれらの質問(例えば神秘主義または神話)について述べる他の方法を区別されます。語哲学は、古代ギリシアの起源です:f???s?f?(philosophia)、「知恵に対する愛情を意味すること。」、Toは哲学の主な分科の徹底的なリストを伝えます異なる、等しく許容できる境界が異なる時間にあったので、難しいです、そして、境界はしばしば特定の期間の懸念と比較してあります。しかし、以下の枝は、通常、主要なものと認められます。形而上学は、存在と世界の性質を調査します。伝統的な枝は、宇宙論と形而上学です。認識論は、自然と知識の範囲に関心を持ちます、そして、知識が可能であるかどうかに関係なく。懐疑論と真実、信念と正当化の関係によって起こされる難問は、その中心懸念の一つでした。倫理学(または『道徳学』)は、人がどのように行動するべきか、あるいは、そのような質問が答えられるかどうかの質問に関心を持ちます。倫理学の主な分科は、メタ倫理学(時々、「分析的倫理」と呼ばれる)、規範的な倫理と応用倫理学です。絶対の倫理当り前のことがあるかどうかに関係なく、そして、そのような当り前のことが知られていることができたように、メタ倫理学は倫理考え(いろいろな倫理システムの比較)の性質に関します。倫理学は、道徳についての考えとも関係しています。プラトンの早めの対話は、美徳の定義の検索を含みます。政治的なPhilosophyは、政府の研究と国への個人とコミュニティの関係です。それは、市民の法律、資産と権利と義務についての質問を含みます。美学は、味覚と感情の美しさ、芸術、享受、感覚の感情的な価値、認識と問題を扱います。論理は、本当の建物から本当の結論まで通じる考えのパターンに対処します。19世紀後期に始まって、フレーゲのような数学者は論理の数学的な処置を開始しました、そして、今日、論理学のテーマは2つの広い境界を持ちます:数理論理学(形式的記号論理学)と現在哲学の論理と呼ばれていること。Mindの原理は、体に対する心とその関係の性質に対処して、二元性と実利主義の間で論争によって象徴されます。近年、哲学と認知科学のこの分科間の増加している接続が、あります。言語の原理は、言語の性質、起源と用法の論じられた調査です。大部分の学科には、哲学(たとえば科学の原理、数学の原理と歴史の原理)があります。そのうえ、主題が持っている研究者の範囲は、歴史的に哲学のテーマであった地域に対処するために出てきました。これらは、Psychology、AnthropologyとScienceを含みます。「哲学者」と「哲学」はギリシアの思想家ピタゴラスのものとされた期間の導入(ディオゲネスラエルティオスに会ってください:「philosophorumにmoribusに小デ自伝」、私、12;キケロ:「Tusculanae disputationes」、V、8-9)。帰することは、ヘラクレイデス(アリストテレスの弟子)の失われた職場で、通過に基づきます。それは、この時のピタゴラスの広範囲にわたる伝説の一部であると考えられます。「哲学者」は、語「学者」(sophoiから)(それは「賢人」を記述するのに用いられました)の代理を務めましたアテネの民主主義で重要だったレトリックの先生。哲学の歴史は、3つの期間に慣習的に分けられます:古代の哲学、Medieval哲学とModern哲学。大部分の西の哲学者の日付と出身地による地図のために、ここで見てください。古代の哲学は、6世紀[585のころ]B.C.から西暦4世紀へのグレコローマの世界の原理です。それは、通常4つの期間に分けられます:予めソクラテスの期間、プラトンとアリストテレスの期間とポストアリストテレス哲学徒(またはヘレニズムの)期間。時々、キリスト教徒とNeo-プラトン学派の人哲学者を含む第5の期間は、加えられます。古代の哲学者(以降の影響に関して)で最も重要なものは、プラトンとアリストテレスです。


association 教会

A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. Strictly speaking in many jurisdictions no formalities are necessary to start an association. In some jurisdictions, there is a minimum for the number of persons starting an association. Some jurisdictions require that the association register with the police or other official body to inform the public of the association's existence. This is not necessarily a tool of political control but much more a way of protecting the economy from fraud. In many such jurisdictions, only a registered association is a juristic person whose membership is not responsible for the financial acts of the association. Any group of persons may, of course, work as an association but in such case, the persons making a transaction in the name of the association are all responsible for it. An unincorporated association has been defined as existing: "...where two or more persons are bound together for one or more common purposes by mutual undertakings, each having mutual duties and obligations, in an organisation which has rules identifying in whom control of the organisation and its funds is vested, and which can be joined or left at will." In most countries, an unincorporated association does not have separate legal personality, and nor do members of the association usually enjoy limited liability. However, in some countries they are treated as having separate legal personality for tax purposes. However, because of their lack of legal personality, legacies to unincorporated associations sometimes fall foul of the general common law prohibitions against purpose trusts. Associations that are organized for profit or financial gain are usually called partnerships. A special kind of partnership is a co-operative which is usually founded on one man?one vote principle and distributes its profits according to the amount of goods produced or bought by the members. Associations may take the form of a non-profit organization or they may be not-for-profit corporations; this does not mean that the association cannot make benefits from its activity, but all the benefits must be reinvested. Most associations have some kind of document or documents that regulate the way in which the body meets and operates. Such an instrument is often called the organization's bylaws, regulations, or agreement of association. In some civil law systems, an association is considered a special form of contract. In the Civil Code of Quebec this is a type of nominate contract. The association can be a body corporate, and can thus open a bank account, make contracts (rent premises, hire employees, take out an insurance policy), lodge a complaint etc. In France, conventional associations are regulated by the Waldeck-Rousseau law of July 1, 1901 and are thus called Association loi 1901, except in Alsace and Moselle where the law of April 19, 1908 applies (these countries were German in 1901). The Civil Code of Germany contains different regulations for registered non-profit and for-profit associations regarded as juristic persons ("Vereine", articles 21-79) on the one hand and for not necessarily registered associations by contract ("Gesellschaften", articles 705-740) on the other hand. In Texas, state law has statutes concerning unincorporated nonprofit associations that allow unincorporated associations that meet certain criteria to operate as entities independent of their members, with the right to own property, make contracts, sue and be sued, with limited liability for their officers and members. In most Australian states a similar set of laws allows not-for-profit associations to become legal entities with a limit to the liability of its members. An example of such a law is the South Australian 'Associations Incorporation Act 1985'. This allows for the creation of a legal entity able to buy and sell land and in general enter into legally binding contracts. Many clubs and societies begin life as an unincorporated body and seek to attain incorporated status to protect its members from legal liability and in many cases to seek government financial assistance only available to an incorporated body. Clubs and Societies wishing to incorporate must meet the provisions of the relevant state act and lodge their constitution with the corresponding state government authority.


from wikipedia